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Cooling Tower Fundamentals

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1. McKelvey, K.K. and Maxey Brooke, The Industrial Cooling Tower. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Co., 1959.

2. Cooling Tower Institute, Cooling Tower Performance Curves. Forth Worth, Texas: Millican Press, 1967.

3. Kelly, Neil. W., Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance. Kansas City, Missouri: Kelly and Associates, 1976.

4. Jackson, J., Cooling Towers. Imperial Chemical Industries Limited, London. 195 1.

5. Hensley, John C., Cooling Tower Fundamentals. 2nd. ed. MCT Company. Kansas. 1985.

6. Burger, Robert, Cooling Tower Technology: Maintenance, Upgrading and Rebuilding. 2nd. ed. Fairmont Press, Inc., Georgia. 1990.

Additional Papers/Trade Articles 

1. Rule, David L., "Evaporative Cooling Maintenance to Improve System Efficiency."ASHRAE Journal April 1994.

2. McBumey, Kevin,"Maintenance Suggestions for Cooling Towers and Accessories." ASHRAE Journal June 1990.

3. Meitz, Amanda K., "Cooling Tower Water Treatment in the 1990s." ASHRAE Journal June 1990.

4. Joyce, Charles T. and Shelton, Sam V., "Cooling Tower Optimization for Centrifugal Chillers." ASHRAE Journal, June 1991.

5. Murphy, Dan. "Cooling Towers used for Free Cooling." ASHRAE Journal, June 1991.

6. Fulkerson, Robert D., "Comparative Evaluation of Counterflow Cooling Tower Fills," Journal of the Cooling Tower Institute, Vol. 9 No. 2.

7. Lefevre, Marcel R., "Eliminating the Merkel Theory Approximations - Can It Replace the Empirical Temperature Correction Factor?" Journal of the CTI, Vol. 8, No. 1.

8. Lefevre, Marcel R., "Influence of air and water temperature on fill characteristics curve", TP-85-8. Presented a the CTI Annual Meeting. January 1985.

9. Feltzin, Allen E. and Benton, Dudley, "A more nearly exact representation of cooling tower theory," Journal of the CTI. Vol. 12, No. 2.

10. ASHRAE Handook: Fundamentals. ASHRAE, New York. 1985.


1. Marley Catalog NC-8800-P-78A, Mission, Kansas. 1978.

2. Neil W. Kelly, Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance. Kansas City, Missouri: Kelly and Associates, 1976.

3a/3b. Richard Aull, P.E. Personal communication B&B/ CTI S.A.  Brentwood

4. Carl Munters & Co. Calculation Charts, Sollentuna, Sweden, 1969.

5. Robert Burger, Cooling TowerTechnology: Maintenance, Upgrading and Rebuilding. p.48, 2nd. ed. Fairmont Press, Inc., Georgia. 1990.

6. Neil W. Kelly, “Blueprint for the preparation of crossflow cooling tower characteristic curves,” Neil W. Kelly & Associates, Kansas City 1976. Presented as TP-146 A at CTI Annual Meeting January 1976.




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