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Structured Packing Media

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1. Särner, E. “Plastic-packed trickling filters,” Ann Arbor Science.

2. Harrison, J. & Daigger, G. “A comparison of trickling filter media,” 58th Annual Conference of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Kansas City, Missouri, October 1985.

3. Parker, D., Lutz, M, Andersson, B. & Aspegren, H. “Effect of operating variables on nitrification rates in trickling filters,” Water Environment Research, Volume 67, Number 7, November/December 1995.

4. Fisher, J., Row, D., Claassen, S. & Zagar, M. “Trickling filter nitrification study – Austin, Minnesota,” 69th Annual Meeting, Central States Water Environment Association, St. Cloud, Minnesota, May 1996.

5. Logan, B., Hermanowicz, S. & Parker, D. “A fundamental model for trickling filter process design,” Journal WPCF, Volume 59, Number 12, December 1987.

6. Wood, D., Drury, D. & Middleton, B. “Evaluation shows plastic media to be more effective than rock trickling filters,” John Carollo Engineers, Phoenix, Arizona, April 1989.

7. Bryan, E. “Development of synthetic media for biological treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters,” First International Conference on Fixed-Film Biological Processes, Kings Island, Ohio, Proceedings University of Pittsburgh, April 1982.      

8. Williams, R., Tamburini, J. & Perry, R. “Process selection, design, start-up and operation of an RBC plant in Red River, New Mexico”, Culp/Wesner/Culp 1981 – 1983.

9. “Operation & Maintenance of Trickling Filters, RBCs, and related processes,” Manual of Practice OM-10, Water Pollution Control Federation (now WEF), Alexandria, Virginia, 1988.

10. “Nitrogen Control Manual,” EPA/625/R-93/010 September 1993.

11. Crites, R. & Tchobanoglous, G. "Small and decentralized wastewater management systems," WCB, McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1998


CE 297B "Water Pollution Control" Pennsylvania State University, Dr. Raymond Regan, P.E., University Park, PA, 2000.

"Principles & Practices of Industrial Wastewater Treatment", Virginia Tech, 1995. Dr. Clifford W. Randall, P.E., Dr. Andrew Randall; Montevideo 1995.

"Fundamentals & Design of Advanced Anaerobic Processes for Industrial Wastewater Treatment" Dr. James C. Young, P.E., University of Arkansas; Montevideo/Buenos Aires, November 2001.

"Fundamentals & Design of Advanced Anaerobic Processes for Industrial Wastewater Treatment" Dr. James C. Young, P.E., University of Arkansas; Buenos Aires, August 2007.


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